Anne Cathrine Pedersdatter, 1805

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History of Peder and Kirsten Christensen

PEDER CHRISTIN CHRISTENSEN ANDERSEN 1828-1903 & KIRTSEN MARIE JACOBSEN CHRISTENSEN 1835-1872

Peder Christin was born July 7, 1828 in Orsoe/Erse, Jutland, Denmark to Christen Anderson and Ane Catrine Pedersen. His parents were farmers. Peder was the second child and oldest son born in a family of 5 daughters and 2 sons. Ane Margrete 29 May 1826 married Christen Petersen Peder Christian 7 July 1828 married Christine Marie Jacobsen Maren 27 December 1831 married _____ Petersen Christina 25 December 1833 married Anders Jorgen Mortensen Ane Marie 18 June 1837 married Jens Christian Nielsen Niels Christian 28 July 1840 Deceased Elise Maren 25 September 1848 ? Peder’s father, Christen Anderson was born 15 Feb 1796 in Orse/Erse, Hjorring, Denmark to Anders Jacobsen and Maren Madsen Jacobsen. His mother, Ane Catrine Pedersen was born 14 June 1805, in Gloskjier, Osbrd, Denmark to Peder Nielson and Maren Christensen. Although Denmark is a very small country, being only about one-fourth the size of Utah, it did its part in the building up of this western country, America, in pioneer days. The Danish people are honest, thrifty, hospitable and God-fearing and endeavored to do right at all times. Their main occupation was that of farming, stock raising and dairying. Denmark, being practically a flat country, almost every acre of land is cultivated. The stock is well cared for. In many instances the barns being as good, or even better that the homes of most people. Apostle Erastus Snow, of the new Church in America, the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ, landed on the shores of Denmark in 1850. His mission was to teach the Gospel of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to the people of Denmark. He was a wonderful missionary and many people received his messages with open hearts and unprejudiced minds. The Lutheran Church was the main religion. The children attended Lutheran schools until age 14, then they were apprenticed out to learn a trade. We can imagine how the saints were treated when it was known to their friends that they had joined the “hated Mormons. In 1853, when Peder was 25 years old, his parents, Christin Andersen and his wife, Ane Catrine Pederson converted to the Mormon Church. They had previously been affiliated with the Lutheran Church. The family was most anxious to come to America and the land of Zion, so they made plans to leave Denmark with their children to immigrate to Utah. The family was considered to be very prosperous in farming/ranching and financially well-off. They sold the farm, livestock and other valuable possessions and decided to sail to America.. Peter Anderson was baptized by P. C. Nelson, December 1853. Peder had been apprenticed to learn the “millright” trade (carpenter and building). He also learned how to make boots and shoes. He had joined the Danish Royal Navy. The only way to be released from service in the navy before the period of enlistment expired was to buy your way out. The family did not have enough money to do this plus secure passage to America, so Peder deserted the Navy and changed his name because he was afraid of being arrested. His family used the Andersen name, but Peder and his fiancé Kirtsen Marie Jacobsen used the Christensen name. (Andersen was the last name of the father. The children would have used the father’s first name, Christin, plus “son” or “datter” added at the end as their last name. In Denmark, Peder Christian would have legally been Peder Christian Christensen) (Some histories state that the father left a considerable sum of money in a Danish bank for Peter C., Christine Marie and a sister, Maren, to come later when Peter was able to get out of the Danish Navy and that they came on later, then met up with the family after arriving in America). Kirtsen/Kirsten Marie Jacobsen was born in Vesterskov, Voer, Hjorring, Denmark to Jacob Christensen and Johanna Govertsen. She was baptized a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 3 September 1853. She was the youngest of three children. Maren 20 April 1822 Jens 23 January 1825 Kirsten Marie 25 September 1835 She had a happy childhood and all the family worked hard to earn the necessities of life. She was educated in the Lutheran religion and schools. She was compelled to attend school until she was 14 years of age. The school was taught by the minister. She was then required to learn a trade. Christina learned to sew. She specialized in tailoring men’s suits and coats. She also learned to make shoes. The family, except Peder, his sister Maren and his fiancee’, Kirtsen, left Copenhagen, Denmark on the 24th of November 1854 aboard the steam ship “Cimbria” along with nearly 300 souls under the presidency of Peter O. Hansen. All immigrants being in good health and excellent spirits. They had an exceedingly rough passage over the North Sea (Baltic Sea). At 10 a.m. on the morning of the 25th, the “Cimbria” arrived at Frederickshavn, Denmark, on the east coast of Jutland (Jylland), where 149 more emigrants from Aalborg and Vendsyssel conferences came on board. About 2 a.m. of the 27th a terrible storm arose threatening the ship and all on board with utter destruction. For many hours the captain fought the storm then he was compelled to turn back to Mandal, a port in Norway which was an excellent natural harbor, surrounded by very high and steep granite cliffs. There, they were forced to stay until the 7th of December. Some of the Saints went ashore to lodge; they found inhabitants of Mandel very hospitable, and by request some of the brethren preached several times to the people on shore. The result of this was that some of the inhabitants subsequently embraced the gospel. They attempted to resume their journey, on two more occasions, but were forced by the extremely dangerous weather conditions to return to port at Frederikshavn. By this time the emigrants were suffering severely. While laying weather bound in Frederickshavn, most of the emigrants went on shore to refresh and rest themselves after their rough experience; and while waiting for the weather and wind to change in their favor a number of meetings were held which made a good impression upon the people of that seaport town, who hitherto had been unwilling to listen to the preaching of Mormonism. By the 20th of December the weather had moderated, and the captain made a third attempt to reach England. During the night between the 21st and the 22nd, a storm worse than any of the preceding ones arose threatening the ship and all on board with utter destruction. For many hours the noble “Cimbria” fought her way against the raging elements, but was at length compelled to change her course, and for the third time the company was turned back. The captain and crew now began to feel discouraged, but most of the Saints continued cheerful and thanked the Lord for their preservation. About 2 p.m. of the 22nd, the wind suddenly changed to the north, and the captain immediately steered for Hull again, amid the rejoicings of the Saints and on the 24th safely anchored in the Humber. The emigrants continued the journey by rail from Hull to Liverpool, England and arrived on Christmas Day, December 25, 1854 where they joined two smaller companies. They remained here for about two weeks. In Liverpool the travelers purchased all kinds of supplies, including canvas to make tents while sailing, to have when they landed. Liverpool was a very busy shipping dock for all ships. The presidency in Liverpool had chartered the ship Helois to take the Scandinavian Saints to New Orleans, but because the company had been detained so long on account of the storms, the Helois had been filled with other passengers. The James Nesmith was secured for their transportation instead. They would not continue their journey to America until January 7, 1855, when they set sail on the James Nesmith Schooner. It was under the command of Captain Harvey Mills and was a large 3-master sailing vessel with 2 decks, no galleries, a square stem, a billethead, weighed 991 tons, measurements were 171 feet X 36 Feet X 18 Feet, built in 1850 at Thomaston, Maine and hailed out of New York. The roster of the James Nesmith lists: #’s 309-314 Christian Andersen (58) Joiner Anne C. Andersen (49) Christine Andersen (20) Anne M. Anderson (17) Niels C. Andersen (14) Farmer Elise M. Anderson (6) Also listed are: #’s 315-318 Christian Petersen (23) Farmer Anne M. Petersen (Ane Margrete) (28) Maren Petersen (2) Peter Petersen (6 mo) Additional information from the ship log states: #309 Christen Andersen family = Christen from Skjellet, Ane Catherine from Als Bye, Christine, Ane Marie, Niels Christian, Elsie Marie all children from Orsoe, Denmark BMR Vendsyssel SMR. #315 Christian Pedersen family = Christian from Uldsted, Ane Magrete from Orsoe, Maren, Peder from Orsoe BMR Vendsyssel SMR. There were 440 Scandinavian Saints and one Englishman aboard the ship when they set sail. According to Emigration Narratives, the Saints who were under the direction of Elder Peter Olson Hansen were in good spirits and eager to be on their way. But it was not to be an easy voyage. There were many children and older folks who became ill and some 13 persons were buried at sea. Life on board the Immigrant Ships The bunks, or sleeping berths, were about six feet long and four feet wide, and two adults or three or more children were expected to sleep in one bunk. There were two sets of bunks along each bulkhead, one above the other, with the lower being about two feet above the floor. Tables bolted to the deck in the center of the room were equipped with benches, likewise fastened down. These were used for various purposes during the day. For meals they were equipped with attachable leafs with raised edges so the dishes did not slide off as the ship rolled and pitched. The ships hull on the lower deck was a little wider and each passenger got slightly more room than they did on the deck above, but less light. Also, the part of the ship below the waterline stayed cooler. As warm air always rises, the upper deck was hot and the air stifling. Personal belongings were “stowed” in small wooden boxes built into the bulkheads. Boxes and crates were nailed to the decks. It was standard procedure for a doctor to inspect the immigrants and certify to the American authorities that there was no small pox or other contagious diseases being shipped to the New World. The immigrants were expected to clean their quarters. At the end of the voyage, a doctor again made a health inspection to determine if quarantine was needed. The saints on the ships were organized into 3 or 4 wards for each deck with a president to preside over each ward. They appointed their own captain of the guard, steward in charge of overseeing their provisions, and cooks. The immigrants were instructed that while on board, they should conduct themselves as Disciples of Christ. They were to arise at 6a.m. and retire at 9p.m. Morning prayers were at 7a.m. Evening prayers were half and hour before lights out. Worship services were held each day at 2p.m., weather permitting, and Sabbath day services each week as well. They were exhorted to be cheerful, keep your quarters clean and serve one another and they were expected to help with various ship duties. Life on board ship went on with babies being born, couples married and people died and were buried at sea. They had to deal with dreary days and drearier nights, stupefying monotony, recurring seasickness, drab meals often eaten cold because they could not build fires on deck due to bad weather, unbearable confinement when it stormed and the hatches had to be secured until it passed, constant vigilance was required to keep small children from getting into trouble or falling overboard, and chilling cold winds or blistering sun. School was held to continue the education of the children but also to help those who spoke other languages to learn English, plays were performed, music and singing was enjoyed. They were presented with spectacular and breathtaking views of icebergs and dolphins racing the ship. When the James Nesmith dropped anchor at the mouth of the Mississippi River February 18th, 1855 after a 42 day or 6 weeks journey over the Atlantic Ocean, it had been more than 11 weeks since they left Denmark! According to the diary of Elder Hansen: When the James Nesmith started up the Mississippi River to New Orleans the ship became grounded on a sand bar as the water was extremely low in February. The Schooner and her passengers remained aboard for several days while they waited for the water to raise enough until tug boats, three of them, could pull her from the sand bar. It was on the 23rd of February that they finally disembarked at the city of New Orleans. The Anderson family, weary and weak from sickness, rejoiced in the fact that they were soon to begin their trek across the plains of America to the land of Zion. Lacking one day it had now been 3 months since they had left Denmark! After a brief rest they boarded the steam boat “Oceana” and on the 24th set sail once more, up the Mississippi River for St. Louis, Missouri. Seven more saints died during this voyage, probably from cholera. The Scandinavians were particularly susceptible to this often fatal disease, because they were from a cold climate and had not been exposed to it; the disease thrived in a warmer atmosphere. Riverboat Travel The women and children were booked in the steerage space of the steamship. The men slept on the open decks. Previous passengers were not very concerned about keeping their quarters clean which made the living spaces filthy, so the sisters would immediately set to work and take turns to clean out their quarters much to the pleased surprise of the steamship crew. They endured the ever present rudeness and persecution because of their religion. They arrived in St. Louis March 7, 1855. On the 11th of March 1855, Peter’s brother, Neils Christin Anderson, who was about 15 years old, was stricken ill and succumbed to the dreaded disease of cholera and was buried on the bank of the Missouri River. On March 12th, the family left St. Louis on the Missouri River aboard the steamboat “Clara” with 175 Saints. They were bound for Atchison, Kansas, but due to the low water in the river, they were compelled to land in Leavenworth, Kansas where they tarried until the company led by an Elder Hogan arrived. During the stay in Leavenworth, about 20 more of the emigrants died, and after selecting a new camping place cholera broke out in the company and caused nine more deaths By the 22nd of May 1855 the company of Saints arrived in Mormon Grove, Kansas which is situated about 5 miles west of Atchison, Kansas. This is the place that had been selected as the outfitting point for the emigrants who crossed the plains in 1855. They would live here for about 13 months, working at whatever jobs they could so they could earn enough money for an “outfit” to continue to Utah. They probably lived in homes left by previous Saints. They built houses for others, mended fences, dug wells, did washing, mending and worked as maids in hotels in the town and in surrounding communities. It was here that tragedy struck the Anderson family once again when Peter’s father, Christin Anderson, was stricken with cholera and on the 11th of October, he died and was buried in Mormon, Kansas. On the 30th of December 1855, the mother, Anna Cathrine also died of cholera and probably was buried at Florence, Nebraska, according to what Peter Christin Anderson told his daughter-in-law, Hannah W. Anderson. What a sad ending for these courageous pioneers. Excerpt from the journal of Jens Christian Nielsen Aug. 26, 1855 – Sunday meeting in the forenoon and those rebaptized was confirmed—not many to meeting on account of sickness. Christian Anderson and_____very sick and believed that the Lord would heal them by regaining their covenant. I baptized them right by their house and confirmed them right there and we administered to them. Oct. 1855 – In visiting the Saints I find that the chills and fever have been quiet hard on the Saints and some have died. One, a carpenter, Christen Andersen, him whose daughter I married after we came to Utah. The burial ground was on the high ground, east side of a small street that run north entering in the Missouri River and his daughter and her husband (Ane Margreta and husband, Christian Pedersen) had buried him without a coffin of which there was no need; there was a number of Saints buried there on that hill. Jan. 9, 1856 – I went to Mormon Grove and found the Saints all well except a child of Jens Sevensens. Anne Katherine Andersen was dead while I was in Weston. This was the widow of carpenter Christen Andersen my wife’s parents that is Anne Marie that later on became my wife. The Mormon Grove Saints’ Trail, 1855–56 Between 1848 and the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, the Mormons developed several points of departure for the Far West. Most of these outfitting stations were located along the Missouri River. During 1855–56 the preferred place was Mormon Grove, Kansas, four miles west of Atchison, an important Missouri River port city. Located on the prairie at the head of Deer Creek, Mormon Grove was an excellent camping place with water, wood, and range for stock. And, like the other Mormon camps along the Missouri, it was close enough to the port city so the Saints could easily purchase supplies, but it was far enough away to allow space for tent cities and grazing animals, and to avoid the assorted evils of river ports. Soon after the first Mormons arrived there in April 1855, they fenced 160 acres, a quarter section, and planted twenty. That year eight companies, totaling 2,041 people and 337 wagons, left Mormon Grove for Zion. A group of fifteen members remained behind to await the next year’s immigrants. During the 1856 season, however, only one company of ninety-seven Saints left from Mormon Grove. Most immigrants were then going directly by rail from the east coast to Florence, Nebraska. At Atchison the Saints debarked the river boats at the foot of Atchison Street. From there today’s traveler should take Highway 73 approximately 4.5 miles straight west and turn south on a section road. The first farmhouse on the west side of the road marks the farm of Mr. Floyd Armstrong, where the old cemetery—all that is left of Mormon Grove today—is located. At least sixteen Mormons were buried there, but no traces of the graves remain. The passenger roster of the John J. Boyd lists Kristen Marie Jacobsen (20) of Wraae, Denmark Vensyssel Conference, occupation – Syepige (Seamstress) Maren Christensen (25) of Denmark Copenhagen Conference Peter Christian Andersen (27) of Denmark Copenhagen Conference, occupation – Carpenter “…On Thursday, November 29, 1855, a company of Scandinavian Saints numbering 447 souls sailed from Copenhagen, on board the steamship ‘Loven,’ bound for Utah, under the direction of Elder Canute Peterson, who returned from his mission to Norway. After a pleasant voyage, Kiel, in Holstein, was reached, and thence the immigrants continued their journey by rail to Gluckstadt, thence by steamer to Grimsby, England, and thence by rail to Liverpool, where the Scandinavian immigrants were joined by 42 British and 30 Italian Saints, and went on board the ship ‘John J. Boyd’ which set sail for American of Wednesday, December 12, 1855…” As soon as they were well on the way to America and traveling through the Atlantic Ocean, the Captain joined Peter and Christine in holy matrimony. It must have been a very thrilling experience for both of them. Peter was about 26 and his bride, Christina, was 19 years old. They were eleven weeks and three days crossing the ocean. They endured many hardships on the ship, along with being overcrowded, and a long journey, the best of their food ran low and sanitation problems were also bad. On the sixteenth of February, 1856, the immigrants landed in New York, and after tarrying a few days at Castle Garden, the journey continued on the 21-22 by rail via Dunkirk and Cleveland to Chicago, where the company, according to previous arrangements, was divided into three parts, of which, one, consisting of about one hundred and fifty souls, went to Burlington, Iowa, another to Alton, Illinois, and a third to St. Louis, Missouri. Most of those who went to Burlington and Alton remained in these places or near them a year or more working to earn means wherewith to continue the journey. The part of the company which went to St. Louis, arrived in that city on the 10th of March, and soon afterwards continued the journey to Florence, Nebraska, where they joined the general emigration that crossed the plains in 1856. When they arrived at Kansas City, the outfitting station for covered wagons, handcarts and supplies of various kinds, Peter located his sisters who came earlier, and learned the fate of his father, mother and brother. This was a very tragic experience for the whole family. They had sacrificed everything to come to America, where they thought life in the Church with the saints and the freedoms of America would be so satisfying. Many, many people lost their lives to this terrible disease cholera. Heartbroken at the loss of their parents and younger brother, Peter, his wife, Christine Maria, and Peter’s sisters, Anna Marie and Elise Maren waited about six months to get outfitted with a hand cart and supplies and be assigned to a company with some covered wagons and then continued the journey west about 10 June of 1856, with the Canute Peterson Company and arrived in the Salt Lake Valley 20 September 1856. Anna Maria traveled with Bro. Samuel Lee and family and Elise traveled with Bro. Martin Lund and family. Another sister, Christine, came with the James G. Willie Handcart Company 15 June of 1856 and arrived in the Salt Lake Valley 9 November of 1856. (See history for Christine Andersen Mortensen – included with “Other Andersen Histories”) Some histories state that one sister left the Church and went back East to live. This could have been Ane Margarete because she and her husband, Christian Pedersen and family did not continue the journey to Utah. Maren, another sister may have also stayed with Ane Margarete Excerpt from the journal of Jens Christian Nielsen Jan 16-17, 1856 – Worked for Jens Gunison on his house. This day came Christine and sister, Anne Marie, for to take their sister, Else Maria, with them to Weston. Feb. 12, 1856 – I went down to the St. George Hotel. Christine and Anne Maria worked there and each gave me $1.00. Between Atchison and Mormon Grove the snow in some places came to the horses’ breasts. June 15, 1856, Sunday – the most of us went to the emigrant camping ground of the Danish saints. There was a dance to 10 p.m. and then we went back to Omaha (Florence, a new place) and I begun to hunt for a place for myself. Maria and her sister, Else, did not find any. June 25, 1856 – Came Bro. N. L. Christensen from camp and said I could get to drive a team and that way work my way through and by paying Bro. Samuel Lee $30.00 he would take Maria and Bro. Lund would take Else for nothing. So I made haste in getting ready as the emigration was to start the next morning. Now $30.00 was very near all my money and I needed some boots and clothing. What could I do? Bro. Christensen said to me if you do not take a girl with you it will be hard for you to get one when you come up to Utah; but there was no time for me to hunt a girl and go into engagement so I concluded to try my luck. This Maria was very anxious to go up and I paying the $30.00 for her without any engagement whatever nor a word on my money. June 26, 1856 – Got a wagon and my things packed and left Omaha for Florence campgrounds. I got a place to drive English Brother F. Pollens’ team and then $30.00 for Maria to join Brother Lee’s English family. The Mormon Pioneer Overland Travel 1847-1868 web site documents the following: Canute Peterson, Captain of Company (2nd Wagon Co.) left Florence, Nebraska about 10 June 1856 and arrived (Salt Lake Valley) 20 September 1856 with about 320 people and about 60 wagons. On the list of known individuals traveling with this company are the names of Anne Maria Anderson (19) birth date 18 Jun 1837, died 28 May 1872, sister of Else Marie Christensendatter, and Else Marie Christensendatter (7) birth date 29 Sep 1848, sister of Anne Maria Anderson Canute Peterson The Mormon Pioneer Overland Travel 1847-1868 web site documents the following: “Immigration to Utah” Deseret News, 15 Oct 1856 Vol. 6, p. 254 Second Wagon Company – Capt. Canute Peterson DANES, SWEDES AND NORWEGIANS. Peter Anderson and family Jens Nielsen Trail Excerpts “Composed of about 320 Scandinavian and English Saints with President Peterson as our Captain, he appointed an assistant captain for each ten wagons. We started on our journey for Salt Lake City, June 10, 1856. We traveled with about 60 ox-drawn wagons. The emigrants were mostly poor people of the laboring class. The first day’s journey was a hard one. Some of our oxen were wild and we did not know how to handle them and consequently did not make much headway the first day. The following day we made good headway. It was very hot and our oxen became very tired, traveling with their tongues out, some of them getting overheated and dying. We were compelled to leave some of our supplies, owing to our heavy loads and this was taken off and left. After a few weeks journey we reached the unsettled[,] wild west, where the buffaloes were grazing in great herds . They built a bridge to help in crossing Wood River. They were observed and visited by Indians to whom they gave foodstuffs and gifts in order to maintain friendly relations. One day there was a stampede and our oxen became frightened, rushing together, one outfit crashing into the other. The women and children became frightened, some of the wagons were broken and a few of our number were hurt and one man killed, which caused a gloom to pass over us. He was buried in a coffin such as we could prepare. We then repaired our outfits and journeyed on. A few of the buffalo were killed, dressed for beef and divided among our company. They celebrated the 24th of July by picnicking, listening to speeches, singing, and dancing. Now and again the Indians were seen roaming from one side of the valley to the other and on occasions they would come to visit us. In order to maintain a friendly feeling, we would oft times give them some of our supplies and provisions such as we could spare. We were compelled to guard our oxen at all times when we were not traveling to prevent them from being driven away or stolen by the Indians. We were called together morning and night by the sound of a bugle to receive our instructions. Sundays, we had meetings and regular services were conducted, adding much comfort and pleasure to our journey. As the company neared Utah, it divided into smaller, more manageable groups. On September 15 Peterson’s contingent was seen near Bear River. In Echo Canyon one of the wagons overturned but no one was hurt. Peterson’s company straggled into Salt Lake over the course of several days between September 16-23. The bulk of the Danes arrived on September 20 and 22. There had been four deaths during the journey. Sometimes we had dances on the green grass and enjoyed ourselves as best we could. During the days while journeying along, nearly all of us walked except those who were sick and the smaller children. We went along laughing and singing the songs and hymns of Zion. The only thing that attracted our attention was the various tribes of Indians wandering about, the herds of buffalo, deer, antelope, and now and then the sound of some wild animal and the howling of the lone coyote. “ Trail Excerpt of Jens Christian Nielsen When we came to the first river which was very deep it could not be crossed with teams. The wagons was took over on a ferry boat and the oxen and cows swum over and there was many men that like to swim that water. I was generally at hand to do all I could for the Saints. I did swim that river three times after cattle with my clothes on. That was all right but after we got everything across, I was ordered to stand guard in the night and given no opportunity to get dry clothes on. That was more than I could stand and the chills took hold of me and I suffered greatly for 400 miles in my driving work and sometimes I thought I would die. But I did get over it. We had our trials especially in crossing rivers and in the buffalo country. Many times our oxen stampeded. The man that I drove for was run over and picked up for dead. But he came to. Laid him up in the wagon the balance of the road. At another stampede a man was run over and died on the spot. Another time a hind axle was broke and no wheelright in camp so it fell on me to make an axle of a green cottonwood and I made it and Bro. Lee had blacksmith tools, so I got it all fixed up but that was a hard day for it happened on a sand hill and blowing almost a hurricane. We had many stampedes but those were the worst. The oxen began to give out, got tender footed and some had to be shod some dying and the Saints had to unload their things on the plains and I saw some emptying feathers from their featherbeds. Then we had to dig wells for water for our stock and sometimes it was not good when we found it. I do not know how many oxen did die but some teams lost half. When we came to the Sweet Water there was snow on the ground and very cold. The Green river was quite cold for women to wade across and grass got scarce for our teams but I did not hear much grumbling. Many old ladys walked nearly all the way from Florence. I will forever say that the Saints had much patience and would dance and sing around campfires and bake bread with buffalo chips and praying, singing the songs of Zion. We arrived in Salt Lake City September 22. Temple Hill Dugout Replica Trail Excerpt As we were traveling by the Platte River on a beautiful, bright day, we were met by a large band of Indians,, who came riding up. The Chief ordered the camp to stop. The Chief said if we would give a pan of flour and a pint of sugar for each wagon, he would not allow any Indian to come to our camp in the night. Captain Peterson agreed to give them what they wanted. We had double guards out during the night. The Indians made a noise all the night so we could not sleep, but not an Indian came to our camp. As soon as it was light, the squaws crossed the river, came to our camp, and began to carry off some buckets and some skillets. Our guards saw them running off with them. They gave the alarm. We were soon up and overtook the squaws and made them give up the things. Captain Peterson made a trade with the Chief. He agreed if the Chief would have his band cross the river and free our camp of them, we would give some more sugar and flour. The Chief said we were Mormons. If we were Americans, he would not. He mounted his horse and in twenty minutes there was not one in camp. We felt great relief when they crossed the river. We gave them the sugar and flour. They went east. South Pass was the highest point of travel. The wind blew so strong we had to cover our faces to protect them from the gravel and small stones. The Canute Peterson Company arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in September 22, 1856. Peter purchased a 10 acre piece of land on the corner of 3rd South and Main Street where the Judge Building now stands. He built a small two room house and he also helped to build a small store on Main Street. When he left for Sanpete County he sold his property for $20.00. Excerpts from the journal and Jens Christian Nielsen September 22, 1856 – we arrived in Salt Lake City September 23, 1856 – I took Marie and Else and went in search of my brother, Augustinus. Did not find him that day. The next day we went to his home in Big Cottonwood and made it our home for the present. It had been approximately 2 years since they had left Denmark to come to Zion. Sanpete County was being populated in several areas, and towns were springing up. Many of these people were from the Scandinavian countries. Moroni was settled by many Danish people. Word was sent to Brigham Young that these towns needed men who were skilled in various kinds of work. Brigham Young called for volunteers, to go to Sanpete County to help build up the communities. Later in the summer of 1857 when the call came from Brigham Young for a group of Saints to travel south to Manti to help settle the area, Peter and his bride packed up their wagon and joined a company which was headed there. Christina was pregnant with her first child, a boy, who would be born in a dugout on the south side of the Manti Temple Hill, on the 10th of October 1857. He was named Peter Christian Anderson, Jr. after his father. Peter had changed his name to Anderson sometime before his arrival in Utah and his bride had kept Christine as her first name, but had changed her maiden sir name back to Jacobsen. Peter Christian, besides knowing the building business, also knew how to run a gristmill. He had also worked as a millright in Denmark. When they got as far as Manti they rented a dugout from a Mr. Munk. In the spring, it was discovered that the hill the dugouts had been built in was also a huge rattlesnake den. The Saints killed snakes by the hundreds, but no one was bitten. Peter rode his horse back to Iowa/Ohio to locate his 2 sisters who had not come to Utah. He found they had left the Church and had gone back to their former religion. He came home very broken hearted. Sometime within the next two years after Peter, Jr. was born they were sent to Moroni and were able to secure a two room cabin where the births of 7 other children followed bringing the total number of children for the couple to 8. Peter Christian, Jr. 10 October 1857 married Hannah Rees Heber Christian 15 November 1859 unmarried Anna Maria(h) Christina 14 March 1862 married William Bryant Gardner Amelia 27 October 1863 married Charles Frederick Gardner Ephraim 30 September 1865 married Eliza Jones Edmunds Hannah 10 April 1867 (died 20 Apr 1867) John 4 January 1869 (died 17 February 1869) Lavina 10 January 1870 married William George Francom Moroni was built in the lowlands at first. The winters were so severe that in the spring they had bad floods, and the dampness was so bad the people were getting constantly sick, and had all kinds of problems. The town moved farther up onto higher ground, where it stands today. It was here that Peter and Christina settled. Peter operated the first gristmill in Sanpete County, and milled flour and grains for many years for all the towns around. Moroni as well as all of the other towns around, were constantly being invaded by the Indians day and night. They would beg for food in the day time, and steal the cattle and sheep at night. They would drive the cattle to the hills to keep for winter. The Indians would make a treaty on day and break it the next. The wars were so bad at times that the towns people, mostly women and children, would leave for days at a time. Finally Brigham Young sent armed men to help keep the peace. Peter Christian and his (1st) son are listed in the Moroni history of the town, as some of the defenders of the town. Peter also fought in the Black Hawk war. He was paid $330.00 for his service in the Blackhawk War (April 1865-January 1868) as an Expeditionary Cavalryman. Finally peace was restored. Peter learned enough of the Indian language that he could communicate with them. It was while they were still living in Manti that a skill that Peter had acquired in Denmark served to save his life. He had learned to build wheels for wagons. Brigham Young had asked a group of men to haul wheat and other grain to Salt Lake from Manti. When they arrived in the Chester area someone’s wagon broke a felly. (The wooden part that goes around the wheel and that the spokes are attached to). Peter found some wood and proceeded to repair the wheel. But the rest of the wagons went on to Salt Lake. It was late in the day when the repair job was finished, so he and the wagon owner camped overnight. The next morning when they caught up with the wagons which had gone on ahead, on the divide north of Fountain Green, they discovered the whole group had been ambushed and killed by Indians who had stolen the grain as well as the horses. A monument was raised for them near the spot. Besides raising her 6 children, Christina Maria maintained a 4 room house, made bread, butter, candles, cleaned and carded wool, spun and dyed it. It was then sent to the weavers to make cloth. She made quilts, feather pillows, knitted sox, mittens, gloves, scarves, and sweaters, also quilts and pillows filled with chicken feathers, and warm clothes in preparing a large family for the harsh, cold winters. Everything they had, they made. The family lived in a log cabin in Moroni and Christina Maria was very handy with sewing, being a costumer of men’s clothing, making trousers and shoes exceptionally well. The sewing was all done by hand. She had learned the trade in Denmark. She had used her trade as a way to earn money to help with the immigration to America. Her services proved to be a valuable asset in the newly settled area. When the town people found out she could make men’s suits and coats, she worked very hard day and night trying to get all of the orders filled.. Peter would take the measurements and she would do the patterns, cutting, sewing and fitting. Peter was finally able to secure a sewing machine for $110 dollars and had it shipped from Salt Lake City. The sewing was easier, but she was still overworked. Christina Maria was a wonderful person to withstand all of the hardships and sorrows she and Peter had. She was in her early twenties when they settled in Moroni. She was terrified when the roving and half-starved Indians would come to town, begging for food. Brigham Young told the pioneers “It was better to feed them than fight them”, so Christina Maria always found something to give them. When peace was restored, when the Indians would come through, they would give the children little trinkets of beads and other things they made. Peter made furniture, and when the need arose he made coffins which Christina Maria lined with silk. He was also a talented musician and could play almost any hand instrument. He played the violin very well for dances and at parties. He also made three violins. He was always a good provider, and generous and kind to his fellowmen, as well as his family. In 1872 Christina’s health wasn’t very good, finally she contracted pneumonia. She became very ill and died on the 28th day of April 1872. Peter grieved as his beloved Christina Maria Jacobson Anderson died, leaving him with 6 children to raise; the oldest being 15 and the baby barely 2. She was 37 years old. The care and responsibilities of six children seemed more than he could handle. They had been loving companions for 18 years and married 17 years. Records show she died in “child bearing” and is buried in the “old cemetery” in Moroni, Utah where there are no headstones. Peter Christen was now left alone to face the responsibilities of caring for his six children. His oldest daughter Anna Mariah was only ten and his youngest daughter Lavina was two years old. Peter’s aunt, an old lady came to live with the family after Christina died. She stayed about a year. (Some histories state that Peter’s sister Anna Maria who had married Jens Christian Nielsen and was living in Moroni, helped him with his little family for about a year. The children called her “Aunt Rye”. Anna Maria had given birth to a stillborn boy in 1872. According to the history of Jens Christian Nielsen, her husband, she died 28 May 1872 one month after Christina Maria, probably from complications due to childbirth or maybe small pox) More Danish immigrants were sent to Moroni. One of these was a young girl named Christena Nelson about twenty old. She needed a home and work. She was born 4 September 1853 in Denmark. Peter heard of this young Danish immigrant girl in Moroni who needed a home and work. After meeting her and finding out what her qualifications were for caring for a home and family, he hired her to help out in his home. She proved to be very efficient and capable, and got along well with the family. After about a year Peter and Kirsten Rasmusssen fell in love and were married Sept. 6, 1973. She was just 20 years old. She changed her name to Christina Nelson. She had been adopted by a family in Ephraim. She and Peter would have 6 children. Erastus 23 March 1875 married Malinda Christena Nielsen Christina 23 Nov 1877 married John Austin Brewer William Stewart Seeley Helena 14 August 1880 married Wales D. Thomas Caroline 12 May 1883 married Henry John Rees Mary Adaline 13 Sept 1885 died 1888 Annie Margretha 5 August 1888 married Ephraim Thomas Helena, Erastus, Christena Caroline, Annie, Peter Christian, unidentified girl in dark dress (possibly a granddaughter through Anna or Amelia from 1st marriage) Peter had been raised on a farm, but he was a skilled carpenter and builder, as well as a wheelwright. He had also built gristmills in Denmark and he began to build mills in the Sanpete Valley. He built and operated the gristmill (flour mill) in the bottomlands between Moroni and Wales where the people took their grain. He was known as “Miller Andersen” wherever he went also to distinguish him from other Peter Andersons in the area. The people of Wales decided to start a cooperative store. Each man contributed five dollars. A wagon was sent to Salt Lake City for a few groceries. John Midley managed the store and post office until 1874 when he moved to Nephi. John Price managed it until his death. A small adobe store was then erected where the present store now stands and Peter C. Andersen was one of the directors. Peter Christian and his new wife, Christena continued to live in Moroni with his first family until after their first son, Erastus was born. They needed a larger home. Peter’s health was being impaired by the mill dust, and he had to give up the milling business. Shortly before their second child was born in 1877, Peter went to Wales and homesteaded a piece dry farm property of 160 acres, about three miles east and south of Wales known as the Andersen Ranch. It wasn’t very far from the little town of Wales, built on the mountain side, and occupied mostly by Welsh immigrants, who settled there to work the coal mines. These mines were mined for a number of years, supplying coal for all the nearby towns to burn in their homes. Castle Gate mines were opened up and it was much better coal. Finally the Wales mines closed down, but some of Peter’s older sons worked in these mines, while they were operating. He dug a well which was 208 feet deep and yielded a rich supply of cold, fresh water which supplied the needs for his family as well as irrigation for a beautiful vegetable garden. All of Peter’s family loved the ranch. There were so many things they could do for fun both winter and summer. They made sleighs, and went sleigh riding in the winter to Moroni and other towns. Also, skating and hunting in the winter, – horseback riding, fishing, picnics, parties, and dances. Peter Christian Sr. Homestead in Wales, Utah Erastus Andersen Cabin He brought water from Duck Springs in Moroni for crop irrigation and filed for it in his name. Later on, in 1890 the Silver Creek Irrigation Company was formed and he gave his shares of water to the Company. He surveyed the ditch with a spirit level, which modern equipment or professional engineers could not improve upon. The ditch is still in use today. For the first while, he would travel from Moroni to Wales to work the farm where he built a cabin down by the corral out of logs, willows, straw and dirt which was destroyed by fire. It is said they were burned out “by the Indians”. Peter said, “Ya, white Indians”. Then he built another log cabin up on the hill with a willow, straw and dirt roof and they moved to the farm in 1877. There is still a cabin on the property. The cabin of Erastus is also on the property. Eventually, as the family grew in size, he acquired a building lot in the township of Wales at 100 South and 100 East where he built a 7 room adobe brick home with the assistance of his two sons Heber and Erastus. Peter and his sons made the adobe bricks for the home. All three men were skilled carpenters and the home was decorated with an abundance of elaborate woodwork. Peter lived here the remaining years of his life. The house has since been torn down and the property sold. The homestead property was divided. The boys were given 30 acres each. The girls may have been given 15 acres. Peter Jr.’s section of the homestead is still owned by Tom Davis, a descendant of Peter Christian Anderson. Peter Christian, Sr house. Wales, Utah Heber, Erastus, Hannah The town of Wales was getting to be quite large. They had a grocery store, post office, and public school, so it was much better for the family than living on the ranch. Peter’s son, Peter Jr. lived in a house next door. He planted 1000 trees on the property which made the property look like a forest which the children loved to play in. The trees are gone now. They raised geese and the old gander would chase the children and scare them so bad that they didn’t want to go outside. The children walked to town barefoot because they had no shoes. The Mormon crickets were so thick that they hurt their feet to the point of bleeding. Peter Christian, Jr. house Little Theater groups were started in each settlement under the tutorship of Aaron Johnson of Springville. The actors in Wales were Thomas J. Rees, Helena Rees, Lavina Anderson, William Woolsey, Sarah Rees, Eliza Lamb, Heber Anderson, Ephraim Anderson, Thomas J. Midgley, and Erastus Christensen. Henry C. Lamb was the manager. This group enacted many dramas to entertain the townspeople. According to Church records of Manti, Moroni, and Wales, Peter was active in the wards. He was listed as a High Priest Group Leader and records show that he performed the ordinances of blessings and baptisms for his children and for others in the ward. He is credited with being very generous to the workers who worked on the St. George Temple. He donated wheat and other foodstuffs for them to use when they spent weeks at a time in St. George. He had the reputation of always being willing to give help to members of the community any time that it was needed. Peter had a mismatched team of horses (one was roan and the other was black) that were full of vitality and energy to the point where they were continually running away with the plow or any other piece of farm equipment harnessed to them. In spite of their wild streak, the following story illustrates that Peter had them well trained. Early in the spring, when the first thaw began, the dirt road between Wales and Chester became a quagmire of sticky clay mud. One day Pete was working in a field when he saw a wagon mired almost to the bed in the mud. He harnessed his horses and approached the wagon where a beautiful matched team of horses was struggling in vain to free the wagon. They were so uncoordinated and wouldn’t pull together. The wagon owner scoffed at the idea that Peter’s mismatched pair could pull the wagon free, but lacking another alternative he agreed to let Peter try to do the impossible. The valiant little team dug their hoofs into the mud and strained with all the strength they could muster. With a mighty jerk and a very audible sucking sound, the mud released its hold on the wagon wheels and it pulled free. The very surprised and further irritated owner hitched his team back on the wagon and drove indignantly away without even a word of thanks to the grinning Peter! When the old train depot, on the southwest end of town wasn’t used anymore, Peter was asked to tear it down, in doing so, it fell over on top of him and hurt his back. He was pretty crippled after that. Christina Nelson Anderson, Peter’s dear second wife, who had been a good wife, and probably had to work very hard all her life too, died March 15, 1889, leaving him alone again to raise a second family. She was 35 years old and had been his wife for 15 years. Annie, the youngest child was 7 months old. She was taken into the home of the eldest son Peter Jr., and his wife Hannah who had a baby daughter the same age. Hannah nursed and cared for both of the babies until one of the married daughters was able to take little Annie and raise her. Helena, Peter Jr’s little half sister, lived with Peter Jr. and Hannah for several years, as well. Lavina, who was now eighteen years old helped with the younger children and the home for about 4 years. She, then went to Salt Lake to work. Christena was about seventeen, so she and the younger sisters took care of the home with the help of their father, who was a very thoughtful and understanding man. Peter never married again even though he was 59 years old when he was widowed the second time. He lived the reminder of his life in the home that he and his two sons had built in Wales and died December 3, 1903 at the age of 75 of a heart attack (the death certificate says “old age”). He had lived his life to the fullest and was well prepared to meet his Maker. He is buried in the Wales Cemetery, Sanpete County, Utah. Peter Christian was a person of fine character. He was a good, kind, honest man. He was of a quiet nature. He always contended that two wrongs did not make a right. A story is told that he was confronted once with a big mouthed, hot headed man who was cussing him out for something he didn’t agree with. Peter just walked away and would not argue with him, saying, “when you cool off and can talk reasonable, we will discuss the issue quietly.” He was agreeable and fair with everyone. He was loved and respected by everyone For a number of years after the settlers first came to Wales their lights were supplied by tallow candles and pincknots. Later, as they were able to get supplies, the kerosene lights came into use. These, however, were later replaced by gas lights. Then, in 1918, arrangements were made to purchase electrical power from Moroni which in turn brought their power from the Big Springs Power Company at Mountain Green. A fifty-year franchise was drawn up with Moroni for the purchase of electrical power at a given rate. The men went into the mountains west of Wales and cut the poles for the construction of the power line. Heber C. Anderson was president of the town at this time. The people were greatly benefited by this enterprise. Years after Peter passed away, his Grandson, LaRay Anderson, son of Erastus was looking for eggs under an old granary when he found a small wooden box. Inside were two patriarchal blessings given to Peter; one with each of his wives and their blessings were in the box as well. Peter Christin Andersen was ordained a teacher in 1854, received his endowments in the Endowment House, Salt Lake, City, 27th of December 1861, Utah, ordained a Seventy by George Reynolds in 1894, holds a Patriarchal Blessing by Father Morley 13th of Feb 1858 and one by Gardner Snow 14th of Dec. 1874. He died 3 December 1903, Wales. Section Peter Christian Anderson 3 Christina Nelson Anderson 3 Mary Adaline 3 Peter Christian Anderson Jr. 4 Heber Christian Anderson 4 Peter Grant Anderson 4 Jack Anderson 4 David Anderson 4 Johnathan Thomas 4 Wales City Cemetery Patriarchal Blessings The following two original handwritten blessings were found in a little wooden box under a granary which stood behind the house in Wales where Peter’s son Erastus lived with his wife Malinda, sons LaRay, Deneal, and daughter Christy. LaRay found the box when he was a young boy searching for eggs under the granary. They were given to Peter C. Anderson Jr. the eldest son of the Anderson family. I inherited them from my dad, Peter Grant Anderson. They were copied exactly as written including spelling and punctuation. I have them in my possession at the present time, April 17, 2009. Gwen May Anderson Jacobson McGarry. A Blessing by Father Morley, Manti, Utah February 13, 1858 on the head of Peter C. Anderson son of P. C. Anderson & Anne C. Born: Denmark, July 7, 1828 Bro. Peter in the name of the Lord and by the virtue of the priesthood, I place my hands upon thy head and I seal thy Fathers blessing with a principle of promise, his seal of priesthood to be a key of a key of knowledge to they mind, thou art entitled to all the blessings of Abraham, Isaac & Jacob. Thou art brot into covenant through the blessings of the everlasting gospel, thy heirship has been given through the mediation of Christ’s blood; and thou shalt be blest in thy stewardship and become an heir to salvation. I bless thee with the keys of priesthood whereby thou canst become useful in redeeming man from the fall. Treasure up in thy mind the blessing, and the key, belonging to the holy priesthood and thou shalt see with the eye of faith the plan of redeeming man from the fall. Thou art occupying a period between the living and the dead when man can be saved by the plan of the everlasting gospel; let the worth of souls become the employ of thy mind. In so doing many souls will be given as seals of thy ministry and will become stars in thy crown in the day of the Lord Jesus. Thou shalt be blest with thy brethren in redeeming Zion and establishing salvation on the earth. I bless thee as a father at the head of thy family; I seal the attribute of wisdom that it may become thy dictator and councillor in thy walk and conversation. Tho art of Joseph; thou art entitled to the blessings of immortality and eternal lives, I ratify this seal in the name of Jesus, even so, Amen F.C. Robinson – scribe 1 2 3 4 5 6 A Blessing by Patriarch Morley, Manti, Utah February 13, 1858 on the head of Christena M. Anderson, daughter of Jacob Christensen & Johanna Govertsen Born: Denmark, September 30, 1835 Sister Christena, I lay my hands upon thy head by virtue of the holy priesthood and I seal a Father’s blessing upon thee for thy comfort, for thou art entitled to the blessings of the fathers through obedience. I bless thee as one of the daughters of Zion with the attributes of fidelity and chastity of heart; I bless thee with these seals to continue upon thy posterity. I bless thee with the gift of wisdom, that thy counsels may be in prudence wilist thou art rearing thy little ones. Perserve thy mind under the influence of peace and thou shalt never be decoyed with anger while in counsel or while in thy domestic circle of life. Prudence shall be thy dictator whist expressing thy words and thou shalt find it one of the blessings of heaven to govern thy house in prudence. It is common to thy *** while rearing little ones to pass trials; the faculties of thy mind will be brought into requisition in thy counsels. Be comforted, my daughter, for thy examples shall be worthy of imitation, thy instructions shall be given in prudence, thy little ones shall rise up and bless thee for thy example and for thy counsel. This thou must receive as a key of knowledge of comport and of consolation; thou shalt be blest in thy habitation with the fruits of the earth. Cleanliness shall be thy gift; thou shalt be blest in thy counsels whilst associating with thy ***. Thou art of Ephraim through the loins of Joseph, a pure descendant of the promised seed. It is a privilege to tarry on the earth til the coming of the Son of Man. Let thy heart be prayerful and a fullness will be given thee; the blessings of the earth, of endless increase. I ratify this seal by virtue of the holy priesthood in the name of Jesus, Amen F. C. Robinson – scribe Note: Patriarch Morley, Father Morley, would be Isaac Morley The following blessing was evidently the second Patriarchal Blessing pronounced upon the head of Peter C. Anderson Sr. I am not sure who has the original handwritten blessing. I have a copy which was typewritten and I do not know when it came into my parents possession nor do I know how they obtained it. Gwen May Anderson Jacobson McGarry. A Patriarchal Blessing conferred upon the head of Peter C. Anderson Sr., son of Christian and Anne K. Anderson Born July 7, 1828 in Denmark Brother Anderson, I place my hands upon your head to give you a father’s blessing and by virtue of my office as Patriarch, I bless you in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in as much as your leange is from Joseph through the loins of Ephraim, I seal upon your head the blessings of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob for thou art a rightful heir to the priesthood and entitled to all the blessings of the promised sealings and blessings confirmed upon thee in the house of the Lord and thou shalt be an instrument in the hands of the Lord of carrying the gospel to thy native land and to gather out the honest in heart and bring them home to where they can resume their washings and anointings and endowments and key words of knowledge, signs and tokens of the holy priesthood in the house of the Lord. Thou shalt be an instrument in the hands of the Lord in redeeming your dead friends. They name shall be numbered with the church of the first born. Thou shalt receive the blessings of the earth and the dews from heaven will bless thee. Thou shalt live long upon the earth to do good in helping to build up the kingdom of God upon the earth and I seal thee up together with your posterity and companions into eternal lives and through your faithfulness I seal all these blessings upon your head in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ even so, Amen. Given December 14, 1874 by Gardner Snow, Patriarch Moroni City James C. Snow, Scribe We little know of the hardships our ancestors went through, leaving their homeland as successful people there, with many friends and acquaintances, and coming to a new land with all its hardships and sorrows – death on the plains, and in the various towns along the way. Also many died on the ships; they had to be buried at sea. They had the language problem to solve as well. Enough can not be said about the two fine women grandfather married and the fine children they partly raised until death separated them. It is quite a coincidence that each of these wives were named Christena, and both married Peter Christen Anderson when they were about twenty years old. Also, both when they died left six living children to be raised. Christena Maria, the first wife, died at age thirty-seven, and the second wife, Christena died at age thirty-six. We, the Peter Christen Anderson descendants are very proud of our ancestors, and know they were destined in heaven to come to this land of America to help build up the Church of the restored gospel of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and to leave their posterity to carry on this great work. Enid Francom Thomas, granddaughter The legacy of honesty, hard work, love of his family and his fellowmen has been passed down through the generations to his numerous posterity. I for one am very proud to have the blood of this valiant pioneer Great Grandfather coursing through my veins. Gwen May Anderson Jacobson McGarry, great granddaughter References: Harriet M. Gardner Frisby (granddaughter) Daughters of the Utah Pioneers Journal of Jens Christian Nielsen, husband of Ane Maria Andersen, sister to Peder Christin Andersen History of Wales, Utah Autobiography of LaRay N. Anderson, grandson of Peder Christin Andersen Research of Gwen May Anderson Jacobson McGarry, Leonard Maurice Frisby, Deanna Frisby Muhlestien, Phyllis Ann Frisby Rueckert, Marjean Bleazard, Katie Jean Larsen, Marilyn Crandall History compiled and written by Gwen May Anderson Jacobson McGarry September 20, 2009 Biography written by Lavina Anderson Francom, daughter Biography written by Enid Francom Thomas, grand daughter-compiled from various family records 7 Feb 1983 Research by Mildred Francom Gunnell, grand daughter Research by Nora Lund, Daughters of the Utah Pioneers historian Excerpts taken from a sketch written by Jane A. Washburn Records compiled by Lloyd Waine Gardner, Arizona, great grandson of Peter Christian Anderson, Feb 2007 Pictures and information from Earl Thomas, Bountiful, Utah, great grandson Heart Throbs of the West, Volumn 2, page 288 Remembrances of family members “Google” internet search of James Nesmith General Voyage Notes of the James Nesmith Excerpts from “Fire of the Covenant” by Gerald N. Lund LDS Family Search Mormon Immigration Index Mormon Pioneer Overland Travel, 1847-1868 ****************************************************************** Utah Government Archives for death certificates – ***************************************************** Marks and Brands for the State of Utah – .archives.state.ut.us/ressearch/indexes/index.html Notes: Some histories state that Peder Christin Andersen came on the ship Benjamin Adams. The Benjamin Adams sailed from Liverpool 28 Jan 1854 and arrived in New Orleans, Louisiana 22 Mar 1854. The passenger list has the following: Andersen, Cathrine Marie (39) of Holmen, Elling, Sogn, Denmark Andersen, Peder (36) of Krogee, Aated Sogn, Denmark. Occupation – Arlsmand Christensen, Peter (31) Denmark. Occupation – Laborer Christenson, Maren 28) Denmark Their ages don’t match those of our ancestors Some histories state that Peder Christin Andersen came on the ship James Nesmith. The roster of the James Nesmith which sailed from Liverpool 7 January 1855 and arrived in New Orleans 23 February 1855 has the following information: #297 Christine M. Christensen (30) #423 Peter C. Christensen (19) Farmer/Servant #297 Kristine Marie Christensen origin Taars, Denmark BMR (British Mission Register) Vendsyssel SMR (listed on one source as Christine Morten Christensen. #423 Peder Christian Christensen listed alone from Asbakholt, Denmark BMR Vendsyssel SMR Their ages don’t match those of our ancestors. There have been many variants in the spelling of their names. Some time between leaving Denmark and arriving in the Salt Lake Valley their names were changed to Peter Christian Anderson and Christina Maria(h) Anderson. A history states “When they boarded the ship, Peder Christen Christensen changed his name to Peter Christen Anderson, and his sweetheart Kirstsen Marie Jacobsen changed her name to Christina Maria Christensen. For many years this change of names held up the genealogical research of Christina Maria Christensen’s family line of Jacobsen. Through the efforts of a granddaughter of Peter Christen Anderson, and the combined efforts of Eva May Gregersen of Copenhagen, Denmark, they were able to establish her true name of Kirtsen Marie Jacobsen. Memory can be an unreliable source for information, especially when it extends over several generations, but sometimes it is the only source available. Since this history was compiled from information from various resources and family members, there may be some inconsistencies. The comments I have inserted throughout the history are not meant to dispute previous research made by others, but only an effort to write down notes and thoughts. I will be forever grateful to others for the research they have done and to those who were so willing to share their family ‘treasures’ to make this ‘added upon’ history possible.

— Phyllis Ann Frisby Rueckert

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